/usr/include/sys/stat.h文件属性

给出一个文件(文件、文件夹),一旦给出pathname,stat函数就返回与此命名文件有关的信息结构,fstat函数获取已在描述符fields上打开文件的有关信息。lstat函数类似于stat.但是当命名的文件是一个符号链接时,lstat返回该符号链接的有关信息,而不是由该符号链接引用文件的信息。第二个参数buf是指针,它指向一个我们必须提供的结构,这些函数填写由buf指向的结构。该结构的实际定义可能随实现有所不同.

int stat(const char *restrict pathname,struct stat *restrict buf);
int fstat(int fields,struct stat *buf);
int lstat(const char *restrict pathname,struct stat *restrict buf);
int chmod(const char *, mode_t);
int fchmod(int, mode_t);
int fstat(int, struct stat *);
int lstat(const char *restrict, struct stat *restrict);
int mkdir(const char *, mode_t);
int mkfifo(const char *, mode_t);
int mknod(const char *, mode_t, dev_t);
int stat(const char *restrict, struct stat *restrict);
mode_t umask(mode_t);
//返回值:若成功则返回0,失败则返回-1
sys/stat.h定义的结构体如下:

struct stat{ 
    mode_t st_mode; //文件类型和权限信息
    ino_t st_ino; //i结点标识
    dev_t st_dev; //device number (file system)
    dev_t st_rdev; //device number for special files
    nlink_t st_nlink; //符号链接数
    uid_t st_uid; //用户ID
    gid_t st_gid; //组ID
    off_t st_size; //size in bytes,for regular files
    time_t st_atime; //最后一次访问的时间
    time_t st_mtime; //文件内容最后一次被更改的时间
    time_t st_ctime; //文件结构最后一次被更改的时间
    blksize_t st_blksize; //best I/O block size
    blkcnt_t st_blocks; //number of disk blocks allocated
};
判断文件类型的函数:

文件类型:
普通文件,S_ISREG();
目录文件,S_ISDIR();
块特殊文件,字符特殊文件,套接字,
FIFO,S_ISFIFO();符号链接.
文件类型信息包含在stat结构的st_mode成员中,可以用如下的宏确定文件类型,这些宏是stat结构中的st_mode成员.
S_ISCHR();S_ISBLK();S_ISLNK();S_ISSOCK()
编写一个简单的程序,用整形输出结构体变量

#include<sys/stat.h>
/*文件属性*/
#include<stdio.h>

int main(int argc,char* argv[])
{
    struct stat buf;
    stat("Demo.c", &buf);
    printf("st_mode = %d\n", buf.st_mode);
    printf("st_ino = %d\n", buf.st_ino);
    printf("st_dev = %d\n", buf.st_dev);
    printf("st_rdev = %d\n", buf.st_rdev);
    printf("st_nlink = %d\n", buf.st_nlink);
    printf("st_uid = %d\n", buf.st_uid);
    printf("st_gid = %d\n", buf.st_gid);
    printf("st_size = %d\n", buf.st_size);
    printf("st_atime = %d\n", buf.st_atime);
    printf("st_mtime = %d\n", buf.st_mtime);
    printf("st_ctime = %d\n", buf.st_ctime);
    printf("st_blksize = %d\n", buf.st_blksize);
    printf("st_blocks = %d\n", buf.st_blocks);

    char *ptr;
    if (S_ISREG(buf.st_mode))
        ptr="普通文件";
    if (S_ISDIR(buf.st_mode))
        ptr="目录";
    printf("%s\n",ptr);
}
编译与运行:

$ gcc Demo.c
$ ./a.out 
st_mode = 33188
st_ino = 1081915443
st_dev = 2065
st_rdev = 0
st_nlink = 1
st_uid = 532
st_gid = 500
st_size = 2895
st_atime = 1517745734
st_mtime = 1517745603
st_ctime = 1517745603
st_blksize = 4096
st_blocks = 8
普通文件

随便给一个CentOS的sys.stat.h文件(/usr/include/sys/stat.h)

/* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1995-2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010
   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This file is part of the GNU C Library.

   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   Lesser General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, write to the Free
   Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
   02111-1307 USA.  */

/*
 *	POSIX Standard: 5.6 File Characteristics	<sys/stat.h>
 */

#ifndef	_SYS_STAT_H
#define	_SYS_STAT_H	1

#include <features.h>

#include <bits/types.h>		/* For __mode_t and __dev_t.  */

#if defined __USE_XOPEN || defined __USE_XOPEN2K || defined __USE_MISC \
	 || defined __USE_ATFILE
# if defined __USE_XOPEN || defined __USE_XOPEN2K
#  define __need_time_t
# endif
# if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_ATFILE
#  define __need_timespec
# endif
# include <time.h>		/* For time_t resp. timespec.  */
#endif

#if defined __USE_XOPEN || defined __USE_XOPEN2K
/* The Single Unix specification says that some more types are
   available here.  */
# ifndef __dev_t_defined
typedef __dev_t dev_t;
#  define __dev_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __gid_t_defined
typedef __gid_t gid_t;
#  define __gid_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __ino_t_defined
#  ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
typedef __ino_t ino_t;
#  else
typedef __ino64_t ino_t;
#  endif
#  define __ino_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __mode_t_defined
typedef __mode_t mode_t;
#  define __mode_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __nlink_t_defined
typedef __nlink_t nlink_t;
#  define __nlink_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __off_t_defined
#  ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
typedef __off_t off_t;
#  else
typedef __off64_t off_t;
#  endif
#  define __off_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __uid_t_defined
typedef __uid_t uid_t;
#  define __uid_t_defined
# endif
#endif	/* X/Open */

#ifdef __USE_UNIX98
# ifndef __blkcnt_t_defined
#  ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
typedef __blkcnt_t blkcnt_t;
#  else
typedef __blkcnt64_t blkcnt_t;
#  endif
#  define __blkcnt_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __blksize_t_defined
typedef __blksize_t blksize_t;
#  define __blksize_t_defined
# endif
#endif	/* Unix98 */

__BEGIN_DECLS

#include <bits/stat.h>

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN
# define S_IFMT		__S_IFMT
# define S_IFDIR	__S_IFDIR
# define S_IFCHR	__S_IFCHR
# define S_IFBLK	__S_IFBLK
# define S_IFREG	__S_IFREG
# ifdef __S_IFIFO
#  define S_IFIFO	__S_IFIFO
# endif
# ifdef __S_IFLNK
#  define S_IFLNK	__S_IFLNK
# endif
# if (defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_UNIX98) \
     && defined __S_IFSOCK
#  define S_IFSOCK	__S_IFSOCK
# endif
#endif

/* Test macros for file types.	*/

#define	__S_ISTYPE(mode, mask)	(((mode) & __S_IFMT) == (mask))

#define	S_ISDIR(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFDIR)
#define	S_ISCHR(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFCHR)
#define	S_ISBLK(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFBLK)
#define	S_ISREG(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFREG)
#ifdef __S_IFIFO
# define S_ISFIFO(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFIFO)
#endif
#ifdef __S_IFLNK
# define S_ISLNK(mode)	 __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFLNK)
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD && !defined __S_IFLNK
# define S_ISLNK(mode)  0
#endif

#if (defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_UNIX98 || defined __USE_XOPEN2K) \
    && defined __S_IFSOCK
# define S_ISSOCK(mode) __S_ISTYPE((mode), __S_IFSOCK)
#elif defined __USE_XOPEN2K
# define S_ISSOCK(mode) 0
#endif

/* These are from POSIX.1b.  If the objects are not implemented using separate
   distinct file types, the macros always will evaluate to zero.  Unlike the
   other S_* macros the following three take a pointer to a `struct stat'
   object as the argument.  */
#ifdef	__USE_POSIX199309
# define S_TYPEISMQ(buf) __S_TYPEISMQ(buf)
# define S_TYPEISSEM(buf) __S_TYPEISSEM(buf)
# define S_TYPEISSHM(buf) __S_TYPEISSHM(buf)
#endif


/* Protection bits.  */

#define	S_ISUID __S_ISUID	/* Set user ID on execution.  */
#define	S_ISGID	__S_ISGID	/* Set group ID on execution.  */

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN
/* Save swapped text after use (sticky bit).  This is pretty well obsolete.  */
# define S_ISVTX	__S_ISVTX
#endif

#define	S_IRUSR	__S_IREAD	/* Read by owner.  */
#define	S_IWUSR	__S_IWRITE	/* Write by owner.  */
#define	S_IXUSR	__S_IEXEC	/* Execute by owner.  */
/* Read, write, and execute by owner.  */
#define	S_IRWXU	(__S_IREAD|__S_IWRITE|__S_IEXEC)

#if defined __USE_MISC && defined __USE_BSD
# define S_IREAD	S_IRUSR
# define S_IWRITE	S_IWUSR
# define S_IEXEC	S_IXUSR
#endif

#define	S_IRGRP	(S_IRUSR >> 3)	/* Read by group.  */
#define	S_IWGRP	(S_IWUSR >> 3)	/* Write by group.  */
#define	S_IXGRP	(S_IXUSR >> 3)	/* Execute by group.  */
/* Read, write, and execute by group.  */
#define	S_IRWXG	(S_IRWXU >> 3)

#define	S_IROTH	(S_IRGRP >> 3)	/* Read by others.  */
#define	S_IWOTH	(S_IWGRP >> 3)	/* Write by others.  */
#define	S_IXOTH	(S_IXGRP >> 3)	/* Execute by others.  */
/* Read, write, and execute by others.  */
#define	S_IRWXO	(S_IRWXG >> 3)


#ifdef	__USE_BSD
/* Macros for common mode bit masks.  */
# define ACCESSPERMS (S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IRWXO) /* 0777 */
# define ALLPERMS (S_ISUID|S_ISGID|S_ISVTX|S_IRWXU|S_IRWXG|S_IRWXO)/* 07777 */
# define DEFFILEMODE (S_IRUSR|S_IWUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IWGRP|S_IROTH|S_IWOTH)/* 0666*/

# define S_BLKSIZE	512	/* Block size for `st_blocks'.  */
#endif


#ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
/* Get file attributes for FILE and put them in BUF.  */
extern int stat (__const char *__restrict __file,
		 struct stat *__restrict __buf) __THROW __nonnull ((1, 2));

/* Get file attributes for the file, device, pipe, or socket
   that file descriptor FD is open on and put them in BUF.  */
extern int fstat (int __fd, struct stat *__buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2));
#else
# ifdef __REDIRECT_NTH
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (stat, (__const char *__restrict __file,
				  struct stat *__restrict __buf), stat64)
     __nonnull ((1, 2));
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (fstat, (int __fd, struct stat *__buf), fstat64)
     __nonnull ((2));
# else
#  define stat stat64
#  define fstat fstat64
# endif
#endif
#ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int stat64 (__const char *__restrict __file,
		   struct stat64 *__restrict __buf) __THROW __nonnull ((1, 2));
extern int fstat64 (int __fd, struct stat64 *__buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2));
#endif

#ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Similar to stat, get the attributes for FILE and put them in BUF.
   Relative path names are interpreted relative to FD unless FD is
   AT_FDCWD.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int fstatat (int __fd, __const char *__restrict __file,
		    struct stat *__restrict __buf, int __flag)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT_NTH
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (fstatat, (int __fd, __const char *__restrict __file,
				     struct stat *__restrict __buf,
				     int __flag),
			   fstatat64) __nonnull ((2, 3));
#  else
#   define fstatat fstatat64
#  endif
# endif

# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int fstatat64 (int __fd, __const char *__restrict __file,
		      struct stat64 *__restrict __buf, int __flag)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
# endif
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED || defined __USE_XOPEN2K
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
/* Get file attributes about FILE and put them in BUF.
   If FILE is a symbolic link, do not follow it.  */
extern int lstat (__const char *__restrict __file,
		  struct stat *__restrict __buf) __THROW __nonnull ((1, 2));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT_NTH
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (lstat,
			   (__const char *__restrict __file,
			    struct stat *__restrict __buf), lstat64)
     __nonnull ((1, 2));
#  else
#   define lstat lstat64
#  endif
# endif
# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int lstat64 (__const char *__restrict __file,
		    struct stat64 *__restrict __buf)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1, 2));
# endif
#endif

/* Set file access permissions for FILE to MODE.
   If FILE is a symbolic link, this affects its target instead.  */
extern int chmod (__const char *__file, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1));

#ifdef __USE_BSD
/* Set file access permissions for FILE to MODE.
   If FILE is a symbolic link, this affects the link itself
   rather than its target.  */
extern int lchmod (__const char *__file, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1));
#endif

/* Set file access permissions of the file FD is open on to MODE.  */
#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED || defined __USE_XOPEN2K8
extern int fchmod (int __fd, __mode_t __mode) __THROW;
#endif

#ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Set file access permissions of FILE relative to
   the directory FD is open on.  */
extern int fchmodat (int __fd, __const char *__file, __mode_t __mode,
		     int __flag)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2)) __wur;
#endif /* Use ATFILE.  */



/* Set the file creation mask of the current process to MASK,
   and return the old creation mask.  */
extern __mode_t umask (__mode_t __mask) __THROW;

#ifdef	__USE_GNU
/* Get the current `umask' value without changing it.
   This function is only available under the GNU Hurd.  */
extern __mode_t getumask (void) __THROW;
#endif

/* Create a new directory named PATH, with permission bits MODE.  */
extern int mkdir (__const char *__path, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1));

#ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Like mkdir, create a new directory with permission bits MODE.  But
   interpret relative PATH names relative to the directory associated
   with FD.  */
extern int mkdirat (int __fd, __const char *__path, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2));
#endif

/* Create a device file named PATH, with permission and special bits MODE
   and device number DEV (which can be constructed from major and minor
   device numbers with the `makedev' macro above).  */
#if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
extern int mknod (__const char *__path, __mode_t __mode, __dev_t __dev)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1));

# ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Like mknod, create a new device file with permission bits MODE and
   device number DEV.  But interpret relative PATH names relative to
   the directory associated with FD.  */
extern int mknodat (int __fd, __const char *__path, __mode_t __mode,
		    __dev_t __dev) __THROW __nonnull ((2));
# endif
#endif


/* Create a new FIFO named PATH, with permission bits MODE.  */
extern int mkfifo (__const char *__path, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((1));

#ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Like mkfifo, create a new FIFO with permission bits MODE.  But
   interpret relative PATH names relative to the directory associated
   with FD.  */
extern int mkfifoat (int __fd, __const char *__path, __mode_t __mode)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2));
#endif

#ifdef __USE_ATFILE
/* Set file access and modification times relative to directory file
   descriptor.  */
extern int utimensat (int __fd, __const char *__path,
		      __const struct timespec __times[2],
		      int __flags)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2));
#endif

#ifdef __USE_XOPEN2K8
/* Set file access and modification times of the file associated with FD.  */
extern int futimens (int __fd, __const struct timespec __times[2]) __THROW;
#endif

/* To allow the `struct stat' structure and the file type `mode_t'
   bits to vary without changing shared library major version number,
   the `stat' family of functions and `mknod' are in fact inline
   wrappers around calls to `xstat', `fxstat', `lxstat', and `xmknod',
   which all take a leading version-number argument designating the
   data structure and bits used.  <bits/stat.h> defines _STAT_VER with
   the version number corresponding to `struct stat' as defined in
   that file; and _MKNOD_VER with the version number corresponding to
   the S_IF* macros defined therein.  It is arranged that when not
   inlined these function are always statically linked; that way a
   dynamically-linked executable always encodes the version number
   corresponding to the data structures it uses, so the `x' functions
   in the shared library can adapt without needing to recompile all
   callers.  */

#ifndef _STAT_VER
# define _STAT_VER	0
#endif
#ifndef _MKNOD_VER
# define _MKNOD_VER	0
#endif

/* Wrappers for stat and mknod system calls.  */
#ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int __fxstat (int __ver, int __fildes, struct stat *__stat_buf)
     __THROW __nonnull ((3));
extern int __xstat (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
		    struct stat *__stat_buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __lxstat (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
		     struct stat *__stat_buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __fxstatat (int __ver, int __fildes, __const char *__filename,
		       struct stat *__stat_buf, int __flag)
     __THROW __nonnull ((3, 4));
#else
# ifdef __REDIRECT_NTH
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (__fxstat, (int __ver, int __fildes,
				      struct stat *__stat_buf), __fxstat64)
     __nonnull ((3));
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (__xstat, (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
				     struct stat *__stat_buf), __xstat64)
     __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (__lxstat, (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
				      struct stat *__stat_buf), __lxstat64)
     __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (__fxstatat, (int __ver, int __fildes,
					__const char *__filename,
					struct stat *__stat_buf, int __flag),
			   __fxstatat64) __nonnull ((3, 4));

# else
#  define __fxstat __fxstat64
#  define __xstat __xstat64
#  define __lxstat __lxstat64
# endif
#endif

#ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int __fxstat64 (int __ver, int __fildes, struct stat64 *__stat_buf)
     __THROW __nonnull ((3));
extern int __xstat64 (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
		      struct stat64 *__stat_buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __lxstat64 (int __ver, __const char *__filename,
		       struct stat64 *__stat_buf) __THROW __nonnull ((2, 3));
extern int __fxstatat64 (int __ver, int __fildes, __const char *__filename,
			 struct stat64 *__stat_buf, int __flag)
     __THROW __nonnull ((3, 4));
#endif
extern int __xmknod (int __ver, __const char *__path, __mode_t __mode,
		     __dev_t *__dev) __THROW __nonnull ((2, 4));

extern int __xmknodat (int __ver, int __fd, __const char *__path,
		       __mode_t __mode, __dev_t *__dev)
     __THROW __nonnull ((3, 5));

#if defined __GNUC__ && __GNUC__ >= 2 && defined __USE_EXTERN_INLINES
/* Inlined versions of the real stat and mknod functions.  */

__extern_inline int
__NTH (stat (__const char *__path, struct stat *__statbuf))
{
  return __xstat (_STAT_VER, __path, __statbuf);
}

# if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
__extern_inline int
__NTH (lstat (__const char *__path, struct stat *__statbuf))
{
  return __lxstat (_STAT_VER, __path, __statbuf);
}
# endif

__extern_inline int
__NTH (fstat (int __fd, struct stat *__statbuf))
{
  return __fxstat (_STAT_VER, __fd, __statbuf);
}

# ifdef __USE_ATFILE
__extern_inline int
__NTH (fstatat (int __fd, __const char *__filename, struct stat *__statbuf,
		int __flag))
{
  return __fxstatat (_STAT_VER, __fd, __filename, __statbuf, __flag);
}
# endif

# if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_BSD
__extern_inline int
__NTH (mknod (__const char *__path, __mode_t __mode, __dev_t __dev))
{
  return __xmknod (_MKNOD_VER, __path, __mode, &__dev);
}
# endif

# ifdef __USE_ATFILE
__extern_inline int
__NTH (mknodat (int __fd, __const char *__path, __mode_t __mode,
		__dev_t __dev))
{
  return __xmknodat (_MKNOD_VER, __fd, __path, __mode, &__dev);
}
# endif

# if defined __USE_LARGEFILE64 \
  && (! defined __USE_FILE_OFFSET64 \
      || (defined __REDIRECT_NTH && defined __OPTIMIZE__))
__extern_inline int
__NTH (stat64 (__const char *__path, struct stat64 *__statbuf))
{
  return __xstat64 (_STAT_VER, __path, __statbuf);
}

#  if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
__extern_inline int
__NTH (lstat64 (__const char *__path, struct stat64 *__statbuf))
{
  return __lxstat64 (_STAT_VER, __path, __statbuf);
}
#  endif

__extern_inline int
__NTH (fstat64 (int __fd, struct stat64 *__statbuf))
{
  return __fxstat64 (_STAT_VER, __fd, __statbuf);
}

#  ifdef __USE_ATFILE
__extern_inline int
__NTH (fstatat64 (int __fd, __const char *__filename, struct stat64 *__statbuf,
		  int __flag))
{
  return __fxstatat64 (_STAT_VER, __fd, __filename, __statbuf, __flag);
}
#  endif

# endif

#endif

__END_DECLS


#endif /* sys/stat.h  */


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