/usr/include/dirent.h打开、读取、关闭目录

struct dirent
{
long d_ino;                      /* inode number */
off_t d_off;                     /* offset to this dirent */
unsigned short d_reclen;         /* length of this d_name */
char d_name [NAME_MAX+1];        /* file name (null-terminated) */
}

相关函数有

DIR *opendir(const char *dirname);//打开目录
struct dirent *readdir(DIR *dirp);//读取目录
int closedir(DIR *dirp);//关闭目录
一个简单的例子:

#include <stdio.h>  
#include <stdlib.h>  
#include <assert.h>
#include <dirent.h>  
/*打开目录, 读取, 关闭目录*/

int main(int argc,char *argv[])  
{  
    DIR * dir;  
    struct dirent *filename;  
  
    if (argc == 1)  
    {  
        printf("Usage: %s directory\n",argv[0]);  
        assert(argc-1); 
        exit(0); 
    }     
  
    dir = opendir(argv[1]);  
    if (!dir)  
    {  
        fprintf(stderr,"open directory error,%d\n",dir);  
        return 0;  
    }  
    while (filename = readdir(dir))  
    {  
        printf("%d, %d, %s\n",dir,filename->d_reclen,filename->d_name);  
    }  
    closedir(dir);  

    return 1;  
} 
编译与运行:

$gcc dirent.h.c
$ ./a.out ../
31285264, 24, .
31285264, 24, ..
31285264, 32, README.txt
31285264, 32, seismic
31285264, 24, test
31285264, 32, cExpert
31285264, 32, lib.so
31285264, 32, algorithms
31285264, 32, study-c++
31285264, 40, linuxTerminal
31285264, 32, include.h
而用linux的指令结果如下:

$ ls ../
algorithms  cExpert  include.h  lib.so  linuxTerminal  README.txt  seismic  study-c++  test

给出CentOS的/usr/include/dirent/h:

/* Copyright (C) 1991-2000,2003-2005,2009,2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This file is part of the GNU C Library.

   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   Lesser General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, write to the Free
   Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
   02111-1307 USA.  */

/*
 *	POSIX Standard: 5.1.2 Directory Operations	<dirent.h>
 */

#ifndef	_DIRENT_H
#define	_DIRENT_H	1

#include <features.h>

__BEGIN_DECLS

#include <bits/types.h>

#ifdef __USE_XOPEN
# ifndef __ino_t_defined
#  ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
typedef __ino_t ino_t;
#  else
typedef __ino64_t ino_t;
#  endif
#  define __ino_t_defined
# endif
# if defined __USE_LARGEFILE64 && !defined __ino64_t_defined
typedef __ino64_t ino64_t;
#  define __ino64_t_defined
# endif
#endif

/* This file defines `struct dirent'.

   It defines the macro `_DIRENT_HAVE_D_NAMLEN' iff there is a `d_namlen'
   member that gives the length of `d_name'.

   It defines the macro `_DIRENT_HAVE_D_RECLEN' iff there is a `d_reclen'
   member that gives the size of the entire directory entry.

   It defines the macro `_DIRENT_HAVE_D_OFF' iff there is a `d_off'
   member that gives the file offset of the next directory entry.

   It defines the macro `_DIRENT_HAVE_D_TYPE' iff there is a `d_type'
   member that gives the type of the file.
 */

#include <bits/dirent.h>

#if (defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC) && !defined d_fileno
# define d_ino	d_fileno		 /* Backward compatibility.  */
#endif

/* These macros extract size information from a `struct dirent *'.
   They may evaluate their argument multiple times, so it must not
   have side effects.  Each of these may involve a relatively costly
   call to `strlen' on some systems, so these values should be cached.

   _D_EXACT_NAMLEN (DP)	returns the length of DP->d_name, not including
   its terminating null character.

   _D_ALLOC_NAMLEN (DP)	returns a size at least (_D_EXACT_NAMLEN (DP) + 1);
   that is, the allocation size needed to hold the DP->d_name string.
   Use this macro when you don't need the exact length, just an upper bound.
   This macro is less likely to require calling `strlen' than _D_EXACT_NAMLEN.
   */

#ifdef _DIRENT_HAVE_D_NAMLEN
# define _D_EXACT_NAMLEN(d) ((d)->d_namlen)
# define _D_ALLOC_NAMLEN(d) (_D_EXACT_NAMLEN (d) + 1)
#else
# define _D_EXACT_NAMLEN(d) (strlen ((d)->d_name))
# ifdef _DIRENT_HAVE_D_RECLEN
#  define _D_ALLOC_NAMLEN(d) (((char *) (d) + (d)->d_reclen) - &(d)->d_name[0])
# else
#  define _D_ALLOC_NAMLEN(d) (sizeof (d)->d_name > 1 ? sizeof (d)->d_name : \
			      _D_EXACT_NAMLEN (d) + 1)
# endif
#endif


#ifdef __USE_BSD
/* File types for `d_type'.  */
enum
  {
    DT_UNKNOWN = 0,
# define DT_UNKNOWN	DT_UNKNOWN
    DT_FIFO = 1,
# define DT_FIFO	DT_FIFO
    DT_CHR = 2,
# define DT_CHR		DT_CHR
    DT_DIR = 4,
# define DT_DIR		DT_DIR
    DT_BLK = 6,
# define DT_BLK		DT_BLK
    DT_REG = 8,
# define DT_REG		DT_REG
    DT_LNK = 10,
# define DT_LNK		DT_LNK
    DT_SOCK = 12,
# define DT_SOCK	DT_SOCK
    DT_WHT = 14
# define DT_WHT		DT_WHT
  };

/* Convert between stat structure types and directory types.  */
# define IFTODT(mode)	(((mode) & 0170000) >> 12)
# define DTTOIF(dirtype)	((dirtype) << 12)
#endif


/* This is the data type of directory stream objects.
   The actual structure is opaque to users.  */
typedef struct __dirstream DIR;

/* Open a directory stream on NAME.
   Return a DIR stream on the directory, or NULL if it could not be opened.

   This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
   marked with __THROW.  */
extern DIR *opendir (__const char *__name) __nonnull ((1));

#ifdef __USE_XOPEN2K8
/* Same as opendir, but open the stream on the file descriptor FD.

   This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
   marked with __THROW.  */
extern DIR *fdopendir (int __fd);
#endif

/* Close the directory stream DIRP.
   Return 0 if successful, -1 if not.

   This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
   marked with __THROW.  */
extern int closedir (DIR *__dirp) __nonnull ((1));

/* Read a directory entry from DIRP.  Return a pointer to a `struct
   dirent' describing the entry, or NULL for EOF or error.  The
   storage returned may be overwritten by a later readdir call on the
   same DIR stream.

   If the Large File Support API is selected we have to use the
   appropriate interface.

   This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
   marked with __THROW.  */
#ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern struct dirent *readdir (DIR *__dirp) __nonnull ((1));
#else
# ifdef __REDIRECT
extern struct dirent *__REDIRECT (readdir, (DIR *__dirp), readdir64)
     __nonnull ((1));
# else
#  define readdir readdir64
# endif
#endif

#ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern struct dirent64 *readdir64 (DIR *__dirp) __nonnull ((1));
#endif

#if defined __USE_POSIX || defined __USE_MISC
/* Reentrant version of `readdir'.  Return in RESULT a pointer to the
   next entry.

   This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
   marked with __THROW.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int readdir_r (DIR *__restrict __dirp,
		      struct dirent *__restrict __entry,
		      struct dirent **__restrict __result)
     __nonnull ((1, 2, 3));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (readdir_r,
		       (DIR *__restrict __dirp,
			struct dirent *__restrict __entry,
			struct dirent **__restrict __result),
		       readdir64_r) __nonnull ((1, 2, 3));
#  else
#   define readdir_r readdir64_r
#  endif
# endif

# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int readdir64_r (DIR *__restrict __dirp,
			struct dirent64 *__restrict __entry,
			struct dirent64 **__restrict __result)
     __nonnull ((1, 2, 3));
# endif
#endif	/* POSIX or misc */

/* Rewind DIRP to the beginning of the directory.  */
extern void rewinddir (DIR *__dirp) __THROW __nonnull ((1));

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN
# include <bits/types.h>

/* Seek to position POS on DIRP.  */
extern void seekdir (DIR *__dirp, long int __pos) __THROW __nonnull ((1));

/* Return the current position of DIRP.  */
extern long int telldir (DIR *__dirp) __THROW __nonnull ((1));
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN2K8

/* Return the file descriptor used by DIRP.  */
extern int dirfd (DIR *__dirp) __THROW __nonnull ((1));

# if defined __OPTIMIZE__ && defined _DIR_dirfd
#  define dirfd(dirp)	_DIR_dirfd (dirp)
# endif

# if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC
#  ifndef MAXNAMLEN
/* Get the definitions of the POSIX.1 limits.  */
#  include <bits/posix1_lim.h>

/* `MAXNAMLEN' is the BSD name for what POSIX calls `NAME_MAX'.  */
#   ifdef NAME_MAX
#    define MAXNAMLEN	NAME_MAX
#   else
#    define MAXNAMLEN	255
#   endif
#  endif
# endif

# define __need_size_t
# include <stddef.h>

/* Scan the directory DIR, calling SELECTOR on each directory entry.
   Entries for which SELECT returns nonzero are individually malloc'd,
   sorted using qsort with CMP, and collected in a malloc'd array in
   *NAMELIST.  Returns the number of entries selected, or -1 on error.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int scandir (__const char *__restrict __dir,
		    struct dirent ***__restrict __namelist,
		    int (*__selector) (__const struct dirent *),
		    int (*__cmp) (__const struct dirent **,
				  __const struct dirent **))
     __nonnull ((1, 2));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (scandir,
		       (__const char *__restrict __dir,
			struct dirent ***__restrict __namelist,
			int (*__selector) (__const struct dirent *),
			int (*__cmp) (__const struct dirent **,
				      __const struct dirent **)),
		       scandir64) __nonnull ((1, 2));
#  else
#   define scandir scandir64
#  endif
# endif

# if defined __USE_GNU && defined __USE_LARGEFILE64
/* This function is like `scandir' but it uses the 64bit dirent structure.
   Please note that the CMP function must now work with struct dirent64 **.  */
extern int scandir64 (__const char *__restrict __dir,
		      struct dirent64 ***__restrict __namelist,
		      int (*__selector) (__const struct dirent64 *),
		      int (*__cmp) (__const struct dirent64 **,
				    __const struct dirent64 **))
     __nonnull ((1, 2));
# endif

/* Function to compare two `struct dirent's alphabetically.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int alphasort (__const struct dirent **__e1,
		      __const struct dirent **__e2)
     __THROW __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (alphasort,
			   (__const struct dirent **__e1,
			    __const struct dirent **__e2),
			   alphasort64) __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
#  else
#   define alphasort alphasort64
#  endif
# endif

# if defined __USE_GNU && defined __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int alphasort64 (__const struct dirent64 **__e1,
			__const struct dirent64 **__e2)
     __THROW __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
# endif
#endif /* Use BSD or misc or XPG7.  */


#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_MISC
/* Read directory entries from FD into BUF, reading at most NBYTES.
   Reading starts at offset *BASEP, and *BASEP is updated with the new
   position after reading.  Returns the number of bytes read; zero when at
   end of directory; or -1 for errors.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern __ssize_t getdirentries (int __fd, char *__restrict __buf,
				size_t __nbytes,
				__off_t *__restrict __basep)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2, 4));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern __ssize_t __REDIRECT_NTH (getdirentries,
				 (int __fd, char *__restrict __buf,
				  size_t __nbytes,
				  __off64_t *__restrict __basep),
				 getdirentries64) __nonnull ((2, 4));
#  else
#   define getdirentries getdirentries64
#  endif
# endif

# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern __ssize_t getdirentries64 (int __fd, char *__restrict __buf,
				  size_t __nbytes,
				  __off64_t *__restrict __basep)
     __THROW __nonnull ((2, 4));
# endif
#endif /* Use BSD or misc.  */

#ifdef __USE_GNU
/* Function to compare two `struct dirent's by name & version.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int versionsort (__const struct dirent **__e1,
			__const struct dirent **__e2)
     __THROW __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT_NTH (versionsort,
			   (__const struct dirent **__e1,
			    __const struct dirent **__e2),
			   versionsort64)
     __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
#  else
#   define versionsort versionsort64
#  endif
# endif

# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int versionsort64 (__const struct dirent64 **__e1,
			  __const struct dirent64 **__e2)
     __THROW __attribute_pure__ __nonnull ((1, 2));
# endif
#endif /* Use GNU.  */

__END_DECLS

#endif /* dirent.h  */


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